Timeline of Humanitarian Disarmament

1992

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) formed in New York.

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) president declares that from a “humanitarian point of view” a “world-wide ban on anti-personnel mines is the only truly effective solution.”

1994
1996

Ottawa Process to negotiate a ban on antipersonnel landmines begins.

Mine Ban Treaty adopted and opened for signature.

ICBL and Jody Williams receive 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for starting “a process which in the space of a few years changed a ban on anti-personnel mines from a vision to a feasible reality.”

1997
1998

ICBL creates Landmine Monitor initiative.

Mine Ban Treaty enters into force.

1999
2000

100th country ratifies Mine Ban Treaty.

Control Arms campaign created.

Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) launched in the Hague.

2003
2007

Oslo Process to negotiate a ban on cluster munitions begins.

International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) launched in Austria.

Convention on Cluster Munitions adopted and opened for signature.

2008
2009

UN General Assembly votes to initiate negotiations of an arms trade treaty.

UN Secretary-General first expresses concern about humanitarian impact of explosive weapons.

Convention on Cluster Munitions enters into force.

2010
2011

International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW) established in Geneva.

Control Arms Secretariat established.

ICBL and CMC merge to create ICBL-CMC.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies calls for abolition of nuclear weapons.

Efforts to adopt weak Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) protocol on cluster munitions defeated.

Negotiations of an arms trade treaty begin.

Toxic Remnants of War Project launched.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots formed in New York.

Human Rights Watch convenes first annual humanitarian disarmament forum.

2012
2013

Norway hosts first conference on humanitarian impacts of nuclear weapons.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots publicly launched in London.

Arms Trade Treaty adopted and opened for signature.

CCW states parties adopt mandate to discuss lethal autonomous weapons systems

Mexico and Austria host conferences on humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons.

More than 100 states endorse Humanitarian Pledge to “stigmatise, prohibit and eliminate nuclear weapons.”

Arms Trade Treaty enters into force.

2014
2015

ICRC holds expert meeting on explosive weapons in populated areas.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers and roboticists issue open letter calling for ban on autonomous weapons.

First Review Conference of Convention on Cluster Munitions adopts declaration “condemn[ing] any use of cluster munitions by any actor.”

Austria convenes discussions of political commitment on use of explosive weapons in populated areas.

Toxic Remnants of War Network established.

100th country ratifies Convention on Cluster Munitions.

UN Environment Assembly passes resolution on protection of the environment in areas affected by armed conflict.

International Law Commission recognizes toxic remnants of war and proposes obligations to address them.

CCW’s Fifth Review Conference establishes a Group of Governmental Experts on lethal autonomous weapons systems.

UN General Assembly votes to negotiate treaty banning nuclear weapons.

2016
2017

Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons adopted and opened for signature.

UN Environment Assembly passes resolution on mitigation of conflict pollution.

ICAN wins 2017 Nobel Peace Prize “for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons.”

International Law Commission adopts draft principles on environmental protection in relation to armed conflict.

Austria convenes conference on use of explosive weapons in populated areas. Ireland starts consultations to develop a political declaration on the topic.

2019